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Civil Rights and Race Relations in America and Their Impact on the Lives of African Americans
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Monday, January 20, 2014
By:Madeline Neighly and Johnathan Smith
Amid nationwide agitation to increase federal and state minimum wages and successful efforts to "ban the box" that requires job applicants to describe their criminal history, Johnathan Smith, Assistant Counsel of the Economic Justice Practice, and Madeline Neighly of National Employment Law Project pen an op-ed for msnbc.com.
Honor Dr. King by helping people get work
By Madeline Neighly and Johnathan Smith
January 20, 2014
In a 1968 sermon delivered just days before his assassination, Martin Luther King, Jr. proclaimed: “If a man doesn’t have a job or income, he has neither life nor liberty nor the possibility of the pursuit of happiness. He merely exists.” Today, far too many Americans are denied employment—and the economic security and fulfillment it brings—for the simple fact that they have an arrest or conviction in their past.
Our nation incarcerates more people than any other country in the world. On any given day, there are approximately 2.3 million people behind bars. Incarceration rates, which have more than quadrupled over the last several decades, have been driven by the failed War on Drugs; the vast majority of people in jail or prison are there because of nonviolent drug offenses.
Not all communities have had to equally endure our nation’s costly, failed experiment with mass incarceration. Because racism and inequality continue to plague every step of our criminal justice system, from “stop and frisk” to sentencing, communities of color have been particularly hard hit. The disproportionate enforcement of our criminal laws is not driven by higher rates of criminality: a recent study from the ACLU shows that although marijuana use among whites and African-Americans is nearly identical, the latter are nearly four times as likely to be arrested for possession.
The economic impact of this mass incarceration on communities of color is staggering. One in every twelve working-age, African-American men is behind bars, and upon release, these men can expect to earn 40% less per year. Those men will also lose out on $179,000 in wages by the time they are 48 years old.
Regardless of their race, people who have served their time and paid their dues face the challenging task of reintegrating back into their families and communities. Instead of making that pathway even more daunting, we as a society should support their reintegration with public policies that not only create the atmosphere necessary for fresh starts and new beginnings, but also pave the way for safer and more productive communities.
“Banning the box” represents one such policy. Removing the check-box that asks about criminal history from the initial job application and postponing any background checks until later in the screening process helps ensure that all job applicants have a fair chance. Job applicants are not denied consideration simply because of an arrest or conviction that may be old, minor, and irrelevant to the job, but are instead evaluated for their qualifications. The decision to ban the box is smart policy, and 10 states and more than 50 cities and counties across the country have wisely chosen to remove this unnecessary obstacle for millions of jobseekers who are trying to get on with their lives.